Family groups consisting of breeding pairs and their offspring frequently roost together and may engage in allopreening during this time. One ringed 9-month-old moved 24 km (15 mi) away from its nest area and was thus seemingly fully independent. White-eyes are among the more frequently taken smaller passerines, with the 10.9 g (0.38 oz) African yellow white-eye (Zosterops senegalensis) being the smallest identified avian prey species, although penduline tits (Anthoscopus ssp.) In southern Africa, recorded nest heights have ranged from 6 to 25 m (19 ft 8 in to 82 ft 0 in) off the ground. Studies in other areas have shown that, while hedgehogs are seemingly taken opportunistically, they are at best secondary as contributors of prey both in quantity and biomass. Most attacks on insects involve large ground beetles or dung beetles. Both parents may use a favor perch near the nest at which they dismantle prey into pieces that can be more easily consumed by their young, these may be called “plucking” perches where birds are more commonly eaten or “peeling” perches where hedgehogs are the most regular prey. To date the cape crow (Corvus capensis) and pied crow (Corvus albus) are the corvids reported in dietary studies but in Ethiopia thick-billed ravens (Corvus crassirostris), which at 1,500 g (3.3 lb) are possible the heaviest corvid species in the world, mobbed them vigorously and seemed to consider them a primary threat. It may take roughly anywhere from another two weeks to a month after this before the fledgling is a competent flier. Their eyes are dark-brown in color and like all eagle-owls, they have ear-tufts. Successful nighttime attacks have been reported on adults of the 2,810 g (6.19 lb) African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) and the 4,017 g (8.856 lb) secretarybird (Sagittarius serpentarius). During such displays, the adult will fly lover the ground with drooping wings, or alights and drags its wings and flaps about, often while bill-clacking and calling. It appears that this species is the only routine predator of hedgehogs in Africa, most other predators of small-to-medium-sized mammals choosing to pursue other abundant mammals without the hedgehog’s prickly defenses. Sub-Saharan Africa has many species of owl, although there is less species diversity than in some areas of similar latitude in the neotropics and south Asia. The cape eagle-owl has a fairly strong preference for nesting and hunting within the confines of rocky and mountainous habitats, whereas the Verreaux’s is at best sporadic in such areas. This is one of the most diet-specific birds of prey in the world. Verreaux's eagle-owl is considered an avian apex predator, meaning it is at or near the top of the food chain and healthy adults normally have no natural predators. Adult patas monkeys, averaging some 8,633 g (19.033 lb), can be even larger than vervet monkeys but whether they take prime adults of the species is questionable. The owls usually fly to a different perch from their daytime roost to use as their habitual hunting perch. The type specimen that was later described by Temminck at the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie was collected by Verreaux while he was still in his teens. In Kenya, the most often recorded prey locally were Tachyoryctes mole-rats, however these were recorded only slightly more often than other genera or species, including non-mammals. The chest is finely barred & milky grey in colour. Monkeys are also predated opportunistically. Such prey is not quantitatively significant as a food source but since raptors as a rule are sparsely distributed the habitual visitation of a single or pair of Verreaux’s eagle-owl can potentially be devastating to a local population. 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