Signal Phrase Examples: APA. The. Often, signal phrases can be distinguished by the presence of a verb like "indicate" or "argue" that references what the author is doing in the original source. Use direct quotations only when a source is particularly clear or expressive. Keep things interesting for your readers by switching up the language and placement of your signal phrases. MLA Signal Phrases; MLA Citation Examples; APA Signal Phrases; APA Citation Examples; CMS Signal Phrases; Basic Grammar. Does Your Sentence Have a Dangling Modifier? A strategy for analyzing and revising a first draft, As Johnson and Allen (2006) have noted, “…”, Einstein and Yvanovich (1956), researchers in physics, pointed out that, “…”, Linguists McAllen et al. Similarly, try to avoid too many long quotations. out that “ …”. MLA/APA/CMS. Signal phrases mark the boundaries between source material and your own words: who said what. Signal phrases utilize APA citation along with past tense verbs. (2003). Or if you use them, be sure that you spend time discussing them in your own words. Signal phrases provide clear signals to prepare the readers for the quotation. ). mother of a child killed by a teen driver, Patti Buensrostro (personal communication, September 3, 2003), pointed. Should You Use –s (or –es) for a Present-Tense Verb? Here are some example signal phrases: Argued Asserted Believed Claimed Commented Disputed Illustrated Implied Pointed out Reported Suggested Thought Wrote When writing a paper using APA style, signal phrase verbs should be written in past tense. Readers should be able to move from your own words to the words you quote without feeling an abrupt shift. When you choose to use quotations, make sure that they are integrated smoothly into the text of your paper. What is MLA, APA, and CMS? Here are some example signal phrases: When you use a quotation, help the reader make a smooth transition back into your own words. However, a few select signal phrases contain no verbs (e.g., "According to … In the words of researchers Serrano and Coronado (2002), “…”. About Writing: A Guide by Robin Jeffrey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. They provide context for the reader. Subject-Verb Agreement; Should You Use –s (or –es) for a Present-Tense Verb? Is Your Sentence a Fragment? Choose a verb that is appropriate in the context. (p. 87). These expressions, which usually occur in the parts of sentences that come just before quotes and paraphrases, are called signal phrases (or, in some cases, lead-in phrases). All information written on this page has been excerpted from the official handbook of the IUP writing center: © 2007–20 Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Career and Professional Development Center, Center for Multicultural Student Leadership and Engagement, 2020-21 Academic Year Plans and Coronavirus Information. Boston: St. Martin's. èSignal phrases in APA (for Direct Quotes and Paraphrases) always include: • author’s last name • publication date in parentheses o Roman (2005) reported that “social factors are… (5th ed.). As Joe Molina (2006) noted, “…”. If you include too many quotations in a research essay, readers may form the impression that you cannot think for yourself. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Subordinate Clauses! (2015) have compiled an impressive amount of data for this argument: “…”, Harrison (2007) answered these criticisms with the following rebuttal: “…”. For example: For example: Pollan (2009) observed that “Americans today are having a national conversation about food and agriculture that would have been impossible to imagine even a few short years ago” (p. 29). Signal phrases make the distinction between writer and source clear for the audience. A Canadian writer's reference (5th ed. Connect your ideas with those of your source’s. Grammatical Sentences. Hacker, D. A Writer’s Reference. Here are some examples of common signal phrases used in summary and paraphrase: As Smith (2004) noted, … Jones (2001) concluded… According to Stevens (2002), … McHugh (2003) contrasted this idea… Signal word examples: admitted, asserted, demonstrated, compared, reasoned, argued, showed that, supported; APA requires using verbs in the past tense or present perfect tense (argued or has argued) Adapted from: Hacker, D. & Sommers, N. (2012). To do this, follow up the quotation with a sentence or two of your own that reinforces or expands upon it.