In the Universal Ethical Principle Orientation,   judgments are made on the basis of consequence in accord with ethical   principles such as justice, integrity, equality, reciprocity of human rights,   and respect for the dignity of human beings. Infant play is characterized as onlooker   and solitary. The infant moves from reflexive to intentional actions,   to visual then physical searching for an object (looking for a dropped   object), to practicing hand-eye coordination (shaking a rattle). Some examples of intrinsic factors are physical characteristics, health state, temperament, and genetic attributes. NCM 107 – Pediatric Nursing Growth and Development Physical growth is an increase in size. Injury prevention: Traffic safety, strangers, and fire   prevention/safety, water safety. How To Use: Caseworkers and other CPS professionals will find many ways to use this chart. In this orientation, it is important to obey the law   because it is the law. The child’s bladder and bowel muscles and innervations   must be physically mature and the bladder large enough to hold urine for   several hours at a time. Tricycle, Body mutilation Explain procedures in simple terms, Loss of control Offer appropriate choices. Continue to use car seat properly: children greater than   20 lb. There is   energetic learning. Both sexes enjoy   movies, popular music and access to vehicles. babbling with mixed consonants, inflection, and cadence), Object permanence (people and objects continue to exist even when an infant cannot see them). All children under 3 years old must be in a crib with a   covered top. The   preschooler wants to conform to others. ), pubic hair;   boys experience enlargement of the testes (13 yrs. The child learns to   tolerate frustration through socialization and toilet training. Adolescents are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases   and pregnancies. Freud: Anal-Uretheral   phase– it is during toilet training that the delay gratification   becomes required and expected. Kohlberg:   Preschoolers are completing the second and third stages in his Preconventional   morality level. The toddler has poorly   developed body boundaries, and any intrusion (even a painless one) produces   anxiety. Piaget: Piaget’s   final two phases of the Sensorimotor stage occur during the   toddler period, and the beginning of the Preoperational stage   occurs. ), increase in scrotum and   penis size, nocturnal emission, pubic hair, vocal changes, possibly   gynecomastia. There is less need for direct supervision. Iris Dawn is a nurse writer in her 20s who is on the constant lookout for latest stories about Science. Freud: Genital   Stage– during this time the adolescent vacillates between dependence   and independence. He/she has wide mood   swings, and fantasizes and daydreams. The child becomes sophisticated in the use of symbols and   language. needle for young child, Do not mix with formula or milk Use only   a microdrip 1-1 1/2in. As children develop physiologically and emotionally, it is useful to define certain age-based groups. Interests are subject to rapid   change. Piaget: The Preoperational   stage continues during the preschool years with the Intuitive   phase. How to Start an IV? Erikson: Identity   vs. Role Confusion-the adolescent focuses on independence from the   family and uses the peer group as a bridge between dependence on the family   and complete independent behavior. Side rails must be all the way up when the child is in   the crib. Freud: The Phallic   stage which focuses on knowledge of gender differences, competition for the   parent of the opposite sex, conflict and final resolution through the   identification with the parent of the same sex (Oedipal/Electra Complex). Peer group and peer acceptance is   extremely important. 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